A rectangular stone column, tapering at the top, and usually a memorial. The
term is derived from the Greek word obeliskos (οβελίσκος), a diminutive of
obelos (ὀβελός) which means ‘spit’ or ‘pointed rod’,
‘needle’, and ‘pointed pillar’,
whereas the Greek term obelos lithinos (ὀβελός λίθινος), means a
‘pointed square pillar
i.e. an obelisk.
Oblique Striped Fruit-piercing
for a species of moth in the Noctuidae family, with the scientific names Eudocima hypermnestra
and Phalaena hypermnestra.
Ocean of Milk
The ocean on which the Hindu god
Vishnu reclines on
the back of the
during his cosmic sleep in between two cosmic time spans. To obtain the
amrita, the nectar of immortality, the gods and demons churned the Ocean of Milk
Mandara, the peak of
Meru, using Ananta as a stirring rope
(fig.). During this process many things surfaced, including the elephant
Apsara, the horse
Uchchaisaravas, and eventually the elixir of life.
Churning of the Ocean of Milk
is depicted on the
southern section of the eastern gallery of
Oc Eo (Óc Eo)
Civilization that originated around 100 AD in the province of An Giang in the Vietnamese
Mekhong delta region and consisted of a mixture of Indian and local culture. Some of the objects unearthed show evidence of the existence of an ancient trading port and a cultural centre that produced artifacts
ranging from precious metals and multi-coloured gemstones to pottery, kettles and monuments.
The name Oc Eo was given by the French archeologist Louis Malleret who
discovered the city. It was an important seaport city of the
kingdom and is believed to have existed from the 1st until the 7th century AD.
The city was connected with the more northerly situated city of
Angkor Borei, which was probably
the capital city of Funan, by means of a canal. Its location at the Mekhong
river, as well as its intermediate position as a stopover port on the maritime
trade routes between the East and West, made Oc Eo an important and prosperous
city. In the course of the 6th and 7th centuries however, merchant vessels were
increasingly able to cover longer distances, making it no longer essential to
follow the coastline or to stop in each and every port. Because the area had
little commodities of its own to offer the importance of Oc Eo gradually
declined. With the rise of the
kingdom trade was largely moved to the upper Mekhong
river, what eventually led to the downfall of Oc Eo.
A festival in
Bali celebrating the anniversary of a temple.
Office of the Auditor General
Independent organization under the supervision
of the State Audit Commission, that is responsible for checking the government's
1. An arch with a double curved line including
convex elements, as in a
2. A term in architecture for an ogive vault which ribs cross diagonally.
Another transcription (and Sanskrit spelling) for
Thai. A large earthen water pot, which is
placed in front of a house in the countryside and used to collect rain water.
ohng mangkon (âÍè§ÁÑ§¡Ã)
Thai. A kind
of pottery from Ratchaburi,
namely bulbous earthen water vessels called ohng, decorated with
dragon motifs in
phaang pha theed.
Commonly seen palm tree of the genus
Elaeis guineensis and mainly cultivated in southern Thailand and on the Malay peninsula. Its racemes which consist of large clusters of crimson seeds are picked and squashed to obtain palm oil used in cooking. In Thai called
ton palm nahm man.
Ok Nang Phi Seua
‘Bosom of the Butterfly Lady’ or ‘Breast of the Mrs. Butterfly’.
Name of the fourth level in the
series of seven falls of the Erawan Waterfall (fig.)
Erawan National Park (fig.)
Old-sculptured Stag Beetle
duang kihm rong kao.
for a species of
hawk moth, with the scientific name
Daphnis nerii. It
has camouflage colours
reminiscent to those used by the military, hence it is also referred to as the
Army Moth and Army Green Moth.
In Thai, it is likewise called
mot yihaw laai
thahaan khiaw (ÁÍ¸àËÂÕèÂÇÅÒÂ·ËÒÃà¢ÕÂÇ),
‘green soldier patterned hawk
moth’. Its name derives from the fact that in the caterpillar stage (fig.),
this species feeds on the highly
toxic leaves of Oleander
yet is unaffected by its toxins. When still young, the caterpillar is
pale bluish and green, and is in Thai
non ton phut
cha khiao (หนอนชาเขียว), i.e.
‘green tea caterpillar’,
whereas when grown the caterpillar is orange and blackish-brown, and
known in Thai as non sih nahm tahn (หนอนสีน้ำตาล),
i.e. ‘brown-coloured caterpillar’. Also spelled Oleander Hawk Moth.
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES.
for a species of passerine bird with the scientific designation Anthus hodgsoni.
Adult birds are about 15 centimeters tall and have greenish-olive upperparts,
with black and white markings (fig.). Below they have black streaks on a buff breast
and lower sides, whilst the belly and vent is whitish and un-streaked.
A species of
sunbird with the binomial names Nectarinia jugularis and Cinnyris jugularis.
Like females (fig.), adult males have dull olive-brown upperparts and bright yellow underparts, but are distinct by a dark, metallic blue-black throat, upper breast
and face (fig.),
shine on the lower
In winter, the male has an eclipse form, i.e. a dull, short-term, post-nuptial
plumage, in which this colouring is somewhat reduced to a simple blue-black
gular stripe, with no metallic blue-black colouring on the face and no
maroon shine on the lower breast (fig.). The throat of adult
females is bright yellow and in addition, they may have a faint beige supercilium, as well as a little white on the shoulders and white tips to the
underside of the tail feathers. Olive-backed Sunbird
have a long, blackish and curved bill (fig.), though not as long as
that of spiderhunters, and their feet and legs are black. This species diet
consists largely of nectar, although it may also take insects, especially when
feeding young. It is a very common resident throughout Thailand and also appears
in other parts of Southeast Asia, from southern China to the Philippines and
Malaysia, down to northeast Australia. In Thai it is called
nok kin plih ok leuang,
meaning ‘yellow-breasted banana inflorescence-eating bird’.
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES (1)
Another spelling (in English and Sanskrit) for
Thai. ‘Put in
your mouth and smile’. Name for a handmade lolly, a kind of candy popular with
children. It is moulded from fructose and put on a stick. Usually made in the shape of
colourful glazed animals or flowers.
Latin. Botanical name for a species of dwarf
orchid in the subfamily
Epidendroideae. The name
Oncidium derives from the Greek word onkos (όγκος), i.e. ‘tumor’, and refers to
a small callus situated at the base of the lip, resembles a tumorous swelling,
hence the name.
One Pillar Pagoda
Name of an iconic
in Hanoi which was erected in the 11th Century AD by
Ly Thai Thong and which is said to represent a
in a lotus pond.
legend has it,
the childless Emperor
dream met the
who handed him a baby son while seated on a lotus flower. When the
Emperor later on married a girl who
him a son, he had the One
erected. Afterward, the Emperor annually held a
bathing ceremony at the site on
Day and for the occasion would free a bird, a custom still practiced here today
by visitors on certain occasions (fig.).
One Tambon One Product
Thai. Term and classifier used to indicate the
‘number’ of sacred things and objects or supernatural beings, as in ‘chedi saam (3) ong’, three
and ‘phra song (2) ong’, two
monks. The term used for people is
‘kon’, and that for beings of a lower rank than humans is ‘ton’.
A monkey soldier
with a green (fig.) fur, that in the
belongs to the army of
Rama. He is the son of
Montho, who was cut from his mothers womb and placed in a goat's womb before she returned back to
Ongkhot was sent to Tosakan as a messenger of Rama, in order to find a peaceful
solution in returning
beloved. When Ongkhot arrived at the city of
Lanka, he called out to open the city
gate, while enlarging his body so that it blotted out the sun, darkening the
entire city. Since the guards refused to
open the city gate, Ongkhot became furious at the delay and broke it down with
his left foot. He entered the palace and
in order to raise
himself to the same level as
enlarged his tail and curled it into an elevated seat (fig.).
When Totsakan paid no heed to any of the propositions made to resolve the matter peacefully, Ongkhot planted his foot firmly on the ground and challenged
anybody in the courtroom to uproot it, saying that if anybody were to accept the
challenge and was successful, Rama would concede defeat and return without Sida.
When none of Totsakan's commanders were successful, an infuriated Totsakan moved
towards Ongkhot to attempt to do it himself, yet just as he was about to try,
Ongkhot moved away and Totsakan fell over, losing his crown in the process,
which fell on the ground. Adding insult to injury, Ongkhot picked up Totsakan's
crown and threw it out of the palace, and explained to Totsakan that the
challenge was only for Totsakan's commanders and not for him, and that he should
rather prostrate himself before Rama, rather than falling on Ongkhot's feet. A
humiliated Totsakan ordered his men to kill Ongkhot, but the latter Ongkhot
escaped with a jump and flew away. In the
his Sanskrit name is
Drug made from the sap of the
and the raw material for making
analgesic and narcotic drugs, such as morphine and heroin. Opium itself is smoked whilst lying down due to its strong effect
(fig.). It is harvested from December to January and is grown on poor soil at high altitudes, making it an ideal and profitable cash crop for many of the hill tribes. In Thailand it is nowadays mainly cultivated and used by the northern hill tribes in the area of the
Golden Triangle, who brought it with them from
China in the late 19th century. Between 1839 and 1860 the British had fought the
Opium Wars with China over the rights to import the drug from India, what resulted in legalization and free trade of the drug there. Although also a major commodity in Thailand at first it was outlawed in 1959 under pressure of the USA. Nonetheless, it flourished during the
Vietnam War and even today the government has only been able to cut production by about 80 percent. Some of the illicit drugs trade is still in the hands of powerful drug lords, often with their own armies and operation from across the Burmese border, leaving police forces with a difficult task to completely abolish it. The government through some royal projects has been encouraging replacement crops, such as cabbages, tea, corn, etc. However, these often demand the use of more land area for a similar profit, resulting in the deforestation of many slopes, what in turn may trigger dangerous landslides.
The word opium is derived from the Greek word ‘opion’ (poppy juice). Opium for
personal use was generally stored in
opium boxes. In Thai opium is called
fin. See also
Wat Tham Khao Krabok.
containers used for the personal storage of
They are often made from durable materials such as animal bone and sometimes
designed oil lamp used to facilitate the vaporization and inhalation of
The bowl of an
opium pipe prepared with a pill, a small dose of opium, is to be held
over the opium lamp, what will cause the drug to vaporize, allowing the
inhalation of the intoxicating fumes.
Pipe used to smoke
specifically designed to vaporize the drug whilst being heated over an
allowing the inhalation of the intoxicating fumes. Due the strong effects of the
drug, as well as to ease the use of the opium lamp, opium pipes are smoked
whilst reclining (fig.).
An opium pipe consists of a long stem, a ceramic pipe-bowl and a metal fitting
called the saddle, through which removable pipe-bowl is attached to the stem.
The stem is usually made from bamboo, often with a mouthpiece made from another
material, such as bone or ivory. Some opium pipes may be made of more expensive
materials, such as jade, ivory or silver. Simple pipe-bowls are generally made
from ceramic or porcelain, but more elaborate ones may be carved from jade or
A pair or scales or balance used to weigh
opium, in combination with specially designed
THEMATIC STREET LIGHT.
opium lamp as well
needed to prepare
including an opium pipe-cleaner and an opium-spoon, a tool used to prime and
place the pill, a small dose of opium, onto the pipe-bowl.
China and England between 1839-42 and 1856-60 over the rights to import
By the 1830's, the English had become major players in the global opium trade.
Growing opium in India, the East India Company shipped tons of it into Canton
which it traded for Chinese manufactured goods and for tea. In the early part of
the 19th century this trafficking had produced a China filled with drug addicts,
causing the imperial government to declare opium illegal, in 1836. Lin Tse-hsü
the Imperial Commissioner at Canton, thus began to aggressively crack down on
the trade by enforcing the new opium laws and closing down smoking dens (fig.), as well
rooting out corrupt Cantonese officials, whom the British generously bribed in
order to keep the opium traffic flowing. Deeply concerned about the opium menace
Lin Tse-hsü set out to cut off the opium trade at its source and wrote a letter
to Queen Victoria with the request that the British cease their export of opium
to other countries, suggesting that trade should only be in beneficial goods.
The English however, who, because of its harmful effects had made opium
consumption and trade illegal in England, refused to back down from their
overseas trade in opium. In response, Lin Tse-hsü threatened to cut off all
trade with England and expel all English from Chinese soil. When Chinese junks
attempted to turn back English merchant vessels in November 1839, the English
responded by sending warships. Thus war broke out in June of 1840. Due to the
technological superiority of the British the Chinese suffered a humiliating
defeat and were forced into signing an ignomious peace agreement under the
Treaty of Nanking. The treaty stipulated that no restrictions were placed on Englsih trade, and, as a consequence, the opium trade more than doubled in the
following decades. But, even with the Treaty of Nanking in place, trade remained
rather restricted, thus angering the English who felt this was clear treaty
violation. The Chinese, for their part, were incensed at the wholescale export
of Chinese nationals, sent overseas to work at what was no better than slave
labour. In 1856, these differences escalated into a series of skirmishes that
ended in 1860 with a second set of treaties that further humiliated and weakened
the imperial government. The most disgracing of clauses in these new treaties
was perhaps the complete legalization of opium throughout China. Also called the
Weights in the form of figurines used for weighing
opium, usually representing
hintha fowls or bantams, but also elephants and other animals or objects. They come as a series of weights, the bigger the heavier. In Thai called
A rather large stone used in
Myanmar to foretell
if a wish will be granted or not.
Fortune seekers must rub the stone while
making a wish, and then predict if the stone will feel either heavy or light
when lifted. If the feel of it corresponds to their prediction, it is believed
that their wish will be fulfilled. Oracle stones are found at
in front of the shrines of the outer
nats, known as
The Son Died One Day Before
The Father warrior nats
Malay. ‘Native People’ or ‘Original People’.
Name of an aboriginal, ethnic minority group of curly-haired, dark-skinned,
Negrito people in
who are related to the
of southern Thailand.
A species of
small bird, that belongs to the family Dicaeidae and with the scientific name Dicaeum
trigonostigma. Males are slate-grey above, with an orange back and a light grey
chin, whilst below the plumage is orange, which is darker on the chest and
lighter towards the vent. Below, the wings are whitish. The bill is black, with
a pinkish-yellow base in immature individuals. Females are mostly olive, with
some black on the wings (fig.),
an orange lower rump, a pale grey chin and upper breast, and faint yellow underparts
The female's bill is slightly curved and black above, while the lower mandible
is pinkish-yellow. These
tiny beauties grow up to 9 centimeters in length. They are frugivorous and have a long specialized tongue in order to
also feed on nectar, which they can do while hovering in the air.
for a butterfly in the Pieridae family, related to the
Common Emigrant. Adults have a wingspan
of about 5 centimeters. The forewings of the male are white with black margins,
and the hindwings are yellow. The wings of the female are similar with
additional black spots. Underneath, the wings are yellow with dark markings. It
has the scientific designation Catopsilia scylla, and in Thai it is known as
(¼ÕàÊ×éÍË¹Í¹¤Ù¹àËÅ×Í§), with the word khoon being the Thai name for the
Drumstick Tree, one of several species of Cassia on which leaves the
caterpillars of this butterfly feed. These caterpillars are dark green above and
pale green below, with a white lateral line along each side of the body,
bordered above with black bar-like spots and tiny dots.
for a species of
butterfly with the scientific name Cepora judith. Above, the wings are white
with black veins and black borders, whilst the hindwings also have a large
orange patch on the lower half. Below, the wings are overall yellow with a black
rim, and orange around the base, whilst ate the top there are some white spots.
Orange-headed Temple Terrapin
Giant Asian Pond Turtle.
Common name of a species of butterfly
in the tribe Heliconiini.
for a species of
dragonfly, with the scientific name
Brachythemis contaminata. In Thai it is known as
malaeng poh ban som leuang, which translates as
habitation dragonfly’. It either has a
brownish-orange abdomen, brown eyes
and a brown thorax, or a yellowish-orange abdomen, greenish-brown eyes and a
greenish-brown thorax. In addition, males have reddish-brown wing patches and
females have pale brown to yellowish wing patches. Also known as
Ditch Jewel and
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES.
Common name for a
with the scientific designation Ceriagrion
Name of a
species of arboreal great apes, with the scientific designation Pongo borneo.
the most numerous and diverse family of flowering plants on the planet, that
consists of tropical parasitic plants, that live on trees in the rainforest and sometimes on rocks or marshy soil.
There are an estimated 25,000 species of orchid and this family formed a
particular fascination for Charles Darwin, as he revealed in one of his letters. The main genera are: Asocentrum, with 5 species; Brassavola with around 20 species; Brassia with about 25 species;
Cattleya (fig.), a genus with between 40 and 60 species (depending on which botanical classification is followed); Culogyne with more than 100 species; Dendrobium, one of the largest genera with around 1,200 species;
Dendrochilum with circa 150 species; Disa, a kind that occurs on soil, with around 125 species;
Laelia with about 50 species and related to the Cattleya to which it resembles;
Laeliocattleya, a crossed form of the Laelio and the Cattleya, with around 2,000 registered names;
Miltoniopsis, a manipulated kind with only 5 species; Odontoglossum, with approximately 200 species;
Oncidium, with more than 450 species; Paphiopedilum, with about 60 species; Phalaenopsis,
with almost 50 species; Renanthera, with nearly 15 species, mainly climbers; and Rhynchostylis, with just six
species and known in Thai as
chang. Most orchids have bare stalks, often with two rows of closely overlapping thick leaves (fig.).
Orchids are extraordinary plants in many ways, but most notably is the fact that
the petals and especially the lower lip of the flower is controlled by a special
set of genes that can influence the shape and colour of the petals, sometimes
only of the lower lip while the rest of the petals stay the same. Hence, some
orchids have petals that evolved into look-alikes of certain insects, such as a
or mimic a bee. The phenomenon was first believed to be a kind of warning for cattle
not to eat it, but in the latter case, it was discovered that the so-called bee
is a mimic of a certain species of female bee, that attracts a male to meet it,
and thus helps in pollinating the flower. This discovery was acknowledged by the
fact that apart from the shape and colour of its lower lip, this particular
orchid also produces the exact same scent that the female bee uses to attract a
male in order to mate. Due to their beauty and uniqueness, there are many orchid nurseries
(fig.) all over Thailand, as well as in many other countries of Southeast Asia, and
Khon Kaen has a park with wild orchids (fig.).
They are also commonly found on
Bangkok's flower market (fig.),
where they are purchased for decorative uses. Vanilla, which produces the
flavouring vanilla, is a genus of orchid (fig.).
was one of seven types of
flowers, used in the royal cremation ceremony of King
IX, in October 2017,
as a symbol of stability, love, and grace,
and representing the benevolence of the late King in performing his royal duties.
orchids are called
gluay mai. In Oriental
art, the orchid is
one of the
Four Sacred Symbols
and one of the
Flowers of the Four Seasons,
where it is the symbol for spring.
See also POSTAGE STAMPS (1),
for a species of 85 to 97 centimeter tall water bird, with the scientific name
Anhinga melanogaster, which is a resident breeder throughout tropical South and
Southeast Asia. This mostly blackish-brown water bird has cormorant-like
features, but with a slender pointed bill, rather than the stubby hooked bill,
which is common in cormorants (fig.).
In addition, it has a very long and slim neck, and a relatively long tail.
Compared to males, juveniles and adult females have a much paler plumage (fig.),
especially on the neck, and are a bit larger overall. It is
a fish-eater and often swims with only the thin
snake-like neck above water.
Hence, the bird is also referred to as Snakebird (fig.). It is also known as Indian
Darter and in Thailand it is called
nok ahy ngaw.
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES.
Popular name for the opulent tourist train which runs between Singapore and
Bangkok, via Penang and Butterworth in Malaysia. The distance is about 2,000 kilometers and the train takes around 36 hours to reach its destination. The renowned dining offers a five star menu, prepared by internationally distinguished chefs. Officially it is called Eastern & Oriental Express.
State Railway of Thailand.
Oriental Garden Lizard
Oriental Honey Buzzard
for a diurnal bird of prey, which is also commonly known as Crested Honey
Buzzard, and with the scientific designation Pernis ptilorhyncus.
Oriental Latrine Fly
malaeng wan hua khiaw.
Common name for a bird of the
family Corvidae, with the
scientific designation Pica sericea.
Oriental Magpie Robin
Name of a
small bird found in tropical and subtropical South and Southeast Asia. The male
has a contrasting black and white livery. Its head, throat and upperparts are
black, apart from a white shoulder patch, whilst its underside of both its body
and long tail are white (fig.). The colours of the female are similar, but its head, throat
and nape are grey. This bird has a clear and beautiful whistle and is a common
sight in parks and gardens. It feeds on insects, largely on the ground, moving
about by hopping. It often perches with its tail raised in an angle to it body (fig.).
Male juveniles (fig.)
have a brownish-buff face and breast, with dark
scaling, and and brownish-black above. Female juveniles (fig.)
have a greyish face and breast, with buff scaling,
and are grey above. In Thai it has several names, including nok kaang khen baan (¹¡¡Ò§à¢¹ºéÒ¹),
nok bin lah baan (¹¡ºÔ¹ËÅÒºéÒ¹), nok ih jaeb (¹¡ÍÕá¨éº) and nok jih juh
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES (1),
Oriental Pied Hornbill
Common name for a species of
with the scientific name Anthracoceros albirostris, the latter, albirostris,
meaning ‘white beak’. They are medium-sized, on
average about 69 centimeters tall (fig.).
Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, and it can
be found in Southeast Asia (fig.) and South Asia. In Thailand, where this bird is known by the names
nok ngeuak lek,
nok kaek and
nok kaeng, it occurs
in the vicinity of the border with
in areas near the Thai border to the North and West of
well as in Khao Yai National Park, on Koh Samet
(fig.), and around
a distribution similar to that of the
Oriental Pied Hornbills have black upperparts and white
underparts, i.e. a white belly and vent, and a black tail with broadly,
white-tipped outer feathers, or a mostly white outertail in Anthracoceros
albirostris convexus (fig.), a subspecies that occurs only in the extreme South of
Thailand, as well as southwards into Malaysia. In addition, Oriental Pied
Hornbills have white facial markings underneath the eyes, which in both sexes
have a bluish orbital patch, and in flight a white, broad trailing edge is
visible on the otherwise black wings
(fig.). The bill and casque of adult males is pale
yellowish with some dark markings, especially towards the back, whereas that of
adult females is smaller
and more extensively dark distally (fig.).
The Oriental Pied Hornbill is very similar to the
Indian Pied Hornbill
which only occurs in India and
See also WILDLIFE PICTURES (1),
Oriental Rat Snake
snake with the
binomial name Ptyas mucosus.
It may grow to a length of about 320 centimeters, with the
anterior half of the body pale or medium brown to near black,
whilst the posterior is somewhat paler and has irregular, thin, black dorsal cross-bands,
that run down the sides to the abdomen (fig.). It has a
brown head and large eyes with round pupils.
The body colour tends to vary according to their
habitat, with pale brown for species living in dry regions to near black for
those that live in moist forest areas. This mainly terrestrial snake is active during
the day and preys on a wide range of animals. In Thai known as
ngu sing haang laai
and ngu sing
seua, which could be translated as ‘stripe-tailed haunting snake’
and ‘tiger haunting snake’, respectively. Also commonly known as Banded Rat
Snake and Dhaman Rat Snake.
Common name of a species of reef fish
with the scientific
designation Plectorhinchus vittatus, and due
to its striped pattern known in Thai as
‘watermelon fish’ (fig.). It has a whitish
body with black stripes that run horizontally across the length of its body.
Towards the underside, the black stripes get thinner and the white becomes more
profuse, while near its contours, especially at the fins, tail and face of the
fish, the ground colour is yellow rather than whitish, and the stripes in the
tail are replaced by black dots as it ages. This species dwells on both coral
and rock reefs, and is found at depths between 2 and 25 meters. Due to their
striking appearance, they are also well-liked aquarium fish.
Oriental Turtle Dove
Name of a bird with the scientific designation Streptopelia orientalis, and belonging to the family
Columbidae, which includes doves and pigeons. There are two main races. Its body
size is about 31-33 centimeters and somewhat resembles the
Spotted Dove (fig.),
though less pinkish and the black neck patch has a different white pattern,
being barred rather than spotted, and the lower mantle and coverts have
reddish-brown fringing. The tail is wedge shaped and either has a grey tip or a
white tip, depending on the race. Its habitat consists of open forest, secondary
growth and cultivation. In Thai it is called nok khao
(¹¡à¢Ò¾ÁèÒ), i.e. ‘Burmese pigeon’. Also spelled Oriental Turtle-dove and
Oriental Whip Snake
Common name for a species of
with the scientific
designation Ahaetulla prasina and which is also commonly known as Asian Vine Snake. It ranges from India to
and throughout Southeast Asia.
In Thailand, this
rear-fanged diurnal tree snake is rather common and is found throughout the country. The
head, which is reminiscent of that of a common house gecko, is spear-shaped,
while the body is finger-thin, tapering to a very thin pencil-width neck. This
grows to a length of 180
centimeters and exists in yellow,
brown and green colour variations, with on the back a checkered pattern of
blackish-brown and some white bars. As a defensive technique, the Oriental Whip
Snake can spread its neck area, almost doubling it in size, and while in full
defensive posture, it tends to sticks out its tongue. Though considered a
rear-fanged and venomous snake, it is not very dangerous to humans due to it’s
non-aggressive nature and weak venom characteristics. It feeds on frogs, small
birds and small reptiles, and has a short striking range. It is extremely fast
and can climb into trees and glide through the forest floor with ease,
disappearing before one has a chance to make a still photo. In Thai, this snake is known as ngu khiaw hua
‘gecko-headed green snake’.
also WILDLIFE PICTURES.
Name of a 10
centimeters small passerine bird, with the scientific name Zosterops palpebrosus
and a resident breeder in the open woodlands (fig.) of tropical South, East and
Southeast Asia, from India to China and Indonesia.
There are several morphs, including
Zosterops palpebrosus williamsoni and the somewhat darker (fig.) Zosterops palpebrosus
Its back, scapulars,
rump, upper tail coverts and head are light olive green, except for the chin and
throat, which are yellowish. Its underparts are
dull white, becoming dusky on the sides and flanks, and with a faint yellow
ventral stripe (fig.). It has a feathered
white eye-ring, which in front of the eye is broken by black feathers that form
a black margin along the bottom of half of the eye. Its bill is black and its legs and feet are
dark grey. It is very similar to the
Japanese White-eye (fig.),
but is lighter above, has a faint yellowish-white ventral stripe and a yellow
forehead. In Thai it is named
nok waen tah khao.
Japanese. The art of folding paper into decorative shapes such as flowers, mammals, birds, etc.
According to an ancient Japanese tradition, if one folds 1,000 origami
cranes one's wish will be granted. Early December 2004 the Thai government called upon all Thai citizens to fold paper crane birds as a token of solidarity to the people living in the deep South of Thailand who were suffering violent attacks by Muslim separatist groups
and with the wish to end the violence. A total of around 60 million birds were dropped from airplanes above the southern provinces of
Pattani. The local people there collected the paper birds falling from the sky which they could turn in to receive rewards, e.g. ten birds could be exchanged for a package of dried
noodles, more birds could be exchanged for prices such as bicycles, etc. Many birds had written messages of solidarity on them. Also
then prime minister Thaksin Shinawat autographed a paper bird promising a scholarship to its finder. Other people folded paper birds made from banknotes.
In a September 2009 contest in Japan for folding the best flying origami
airplane, Mong Thongdee (ËÁèÍ§ ·Í§´Õ), a 12-year old Thai schoolboy of Burmese
origin, took third place in the individual event for elementary school students
with a time of 10.53 seconds, whilst his team won the group competition with
Mong’s paper plane and in an earlier
exhibition, his airplane stayed in the air for 16.45 seconds.
Scientific name for a species of moth in the family Geometridae.
It is bright green with off-white to pale beige fringes, as well as some tiny
spots and irregular patches, most notably the larger reddish brown discal marks on the apex of each of the hindwings,
akin to the
Pointed Flatwing (fig.).
The forewings have two fine, off-white to pale beige,
transverse stripes, in between the apex and base, i.e. an inner and outer stripe. Yet, on the hindwings there is just one stripe as the inner one
is swapped for a reddish brown-edged white spot. This moth has a set of pale beige feather
antennae. Ornithospila lineata is distributed in the region of the northeastern
Thailand, and parts of
and Indonesia, including Borneo and Sumatra.
for a large diurnal bird of prey, which is also commonly known as Sea Hawk, Fish
Hawk and Fish Eagle, and with the scientific designation Pandion haliaetus.
Thai-English abbreviation for ‘One
One Product’. A government supported initiative to promote local produce from all over the country, as well as a support to conserve the local heritage. In advertisement usually written with the Thai number 1 (๑), that is
(Neung Tambon Neung Phlitaphan, or: one district one product).
Doi Mae Salong there is an
aimed at the conservation of the
Akha hill tribe
Thai. A title
Phra. It is a
Burmese term for ‘coconut’.
coconuts and hands of
bananas are a typical offering for the
nats, known as
gado bwe (fig.).
ouwn chon (ÍÇ¹ªéÍ¹)
net’. Another name for
ouwn yok, i.e. a lift net.
ouwn yok (ÍÇ¹Â¡)
net’. A type of fishing net, usually with a square shape, or otherwise round,
and used to fish at the banks of lakes, rivers, lagoons and canals. It is used
to catch surface fish and as bait to entice the fish, light is used. The fish is
caught by lifting the net out of the water, hence the name lift net. Though
foremost a land fishing net, it is sometimes employed from large rafts, such as
on Khao Laem Lake in
(fig.), and on Tonle
Sap Lake in
Lift nets are also known as
ouwn chon, literally ‘spoon net’.
Ovada Patimokkha (âÍÇÒ·»Ò¯ÔâÁ¡¢ì)
Thai-Pali. ‘Discourse concerning
deliverance’. Term in Sanskrit referred to as Ovada Pratimoksha or simply
Pratimoksha (प्रतिमोक्ष) and which is
related to the concept of mokkha (โมกข) or
It is a brief synopsis of the principles of the Buddha's teaching, containing
both injunctions and principles for administration of the Buddhist Order, as
dictated prior to the investiture of the
which formulates the monastic discipline. There are thirteen points in all.
Monks are summoned to vow to restrain, be moderate in eating, patient, not
disparaging others, and not to harm others. In summary, and known in Thailand as
the Heart of Buddhism, the principles encompass giving up of evil, cultivation
of the good, and purification of the mind, with the highest of all teachings
i.e. the cessation of defilements and transcendence of suffering. Also
See also POSTAGE STAMP.
owk pansa (ออกพรรษา)
Thai. ‘Go out of the rainy season’. End of the
Buddhist Lent, on
the 15th full moon of the 11th lunar month, usually mid-October. That evening on the
Mekhong River in
Nong Kai a strange ‘natural’ phenomenon takes place, called the fireball phenomenon or
Also transcribed ouk/awk pansa/phansa. See also
Common name for a large nocturnal moth in
the family Brahmaeidae, i.e.
brahmin moths, with
the scientific designation Brahmaea wallichii. It is found in both tropical and
temperate forests in India, Bhutan,
Taiwan and Japan and has a wingspan of up to 16 centimeters, with large eye
spots on the front wings and a characteristic pattern of black and orange-brown
stripes, and like the
Great Owl Moth (fig.),
the markings on the wings are
reminiscent to the face of an owl (fig.).
Besides the nominate race Brahmaea wallichii wallichii, there are the subspecies
Brahmaea wallichii insulata, found in Taiwan, and Brahmaea wallichii saifulica,
found in the
Name for an
elongated, goblet-shaped drum from
Myanmar, similar to the Thai
klong yao and the
which too have their origins in
It is made by hollowing out a single block of wood, and played held vertically,
resting on the drummer’s chest, while suspended from a cord around the neck. It
is also referred to as the pot drum.